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Published 09-Oct-2018 Bilingual

- Define Electric current and potential difference
- Explain Ohm's law
- Definition of Resistance and Resistivity,
- Discus the Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends
- What is Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life?
- Describe Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life
- Explain Electric power, Inter relation
between P, V, I and R.

·**WHAT WE STUDY IN KINEMATICS?** - Frame of reference
- Motion in a straight line
- Position-time graph
- Speed and velocity
- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion
- Uniform and non-uniform motion ·
- Average speed and instantaneous velocity
- Uniformly accelerated motion
- Velocity time
- Position-time graphs
- Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)
- Scalar and vector quantities
- Position and displacement vectors
- general vectors and their notations
- equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number
- addition and subtraction of vectors
- Relative velocity
- Unit vector
- Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components
- Scalar and Vector product of vectors
- Motion in a plane
- Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion
- Uniform circular motion
**WHAT WE STUDY IN WORK, ENERGY AND POWER?**

- Work done by a constant force and a variable force
- Kinetic energy
- Work-energy theorem
- Power
- Notion of potential energy
- Potential energy of a spring
- Conservative forces
- Conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies)
- Non-conservative forces
- Motion in a vertical circle
- Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions

- Intuitive concept of force
- Inertia
- Newton's first law of motion
- momentum and Newton's second law of motion
- impulse; Newton's third law of motion
- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces
- Static and kinetic friction
- laws of friction
- rolling friction
- lubrication
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion:
**WHAT WE STUDY IN GRAVITATION?** - Keplar's laws of planetary motion
- The universal law of gravitation
- Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth
- Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential
- Escape velocity
- Orbital velocity of a satellite
- Geo-stationary
satellites
**WHAT WE STUDY IN ROTATIONAL MOTION?** - Centre of mass of a two-particle system
- momentum conservation and centre of mass motion
- Centre of mass of a rigid body
- Centre of mass of a uniform rod
- Moment of a force
- Torque
- angular momentum
- laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies
- rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion
- comparison of linear and rotational motions
- Moment of inertia
- radius of gyration
- Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation)
- Statement of parallel and
perpendicular axes theorems and their applications
**WHAT WE STUDY IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS?**

- Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes)
- Effect of gravity on fluid pressure
- Viscosity
- Stokes' law
- terminal velocity
- streamline and turbulent flow
- critical velocity
- Bernoulli's theorem and its applications
- Surface energy and surface tension
- angle of contact
- excess of pressure across a curved surface
- application of surface tension ideas to drops
- bubbles and capillary rise

- Zeroth law of thermodynamics
- Heat, work and internal energy
- First law of thermodynamics
- Isothermal and adiabatic processes
- Second law of thermodynamics −
- Reversible and irreversible processes
- Heat engine and refrigerator

- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- speed of wave motion
- Displacement relation for a progressive wave
- Principle of superposition of waves
- reflection of waves
- standing waves in strings and organ pipes
- fundamental mode and harmonics
- Beats
- Doppler effect

- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current
- Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity
- Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance
- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and EMF of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel
- Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications
- Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge
- Potentiometer −
o Principle and its applications to measure
potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells
o Measurement of internal resistance of a cell
**WHAT WE STUDY IN MOVING CHARGES AND MAGNETISM?** - Concept of magnetic field − o Oersted’s experiment
- Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire
- Straight and toroidal solenoids
- Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields
- Cyclotron
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field
- Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere
- Torque experienced by a
current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current
sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
**WHAT WE STUDY IN MAGNETISM AND MATTER?** - Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment
- Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron
- Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis
- Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field − o Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid o Magnetic field lines o Earth’s magnetic field o Magnetic elements
- Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples
- Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths
- Permanent magnets
**WHAT WE STUDY IN RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS?** - Ray Optics − o Reflection of light o Spherical mirrors o Mirror formula o Refraction of light o Total internal reflection and its applications o Optical fibres o Refraction at spherical surfaces o Lenses o Thin lens formula o Lensmaker’s formula
- Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror
- Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
- Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset
- Optical instruments:
Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their
magnifying powers
**WHAT WE STUDY IN WAVE OPTICS?** - Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle
- Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light
- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes
- Polarisation, plane
polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids
**WHAT WE STUDY IN DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER?** - Dual nature of radiation
- Photoelectric effect
- Hertz and Lenard’s observations
- Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light
- Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation
- Davisson-Germer
experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be
explained).
**WHAT WE STUDY IN ATOMS?** - Alpha-particle scattering experiment

- Rutherford’s model of atom
- Bohr model
- Energy levels
- Hydrogen spectrum

- Composition and size of −
- Nucleus
- Atomic masses
- Isotopes
- Isobars
- Isotones
- Radioactivity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties
- Radioactive decay law
- Mass-energy relation −
- Mass defect
- Binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number
- Nuclear fission
- Nuclear fusion

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