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A.J. Cronin has very well carved the idea of ‘selfless help ‘ and explained the importance of dedication towards relationships in the story Two Gentlemen of Verona. The story revolves around the two boys named Nicola and Jacopo who do numerous things to earn money only to pay for their sister ‘s treatment who suffers from tuberculosis of the spine.

Mrs Packletide: She was a vain person whose principle point in life was to eclipse her neighbor Loona Bimberton. When she came to realize that Loona Bimberton had as of late been conveyed eleven miles in a plane by an Algerian pilot. She was stricken with incredible envy. She had a powerful urge to help out once-over Loona ‘s experience. So she chose to chase a tiger and to secure his skin. In the event that effective in doing as such, her photos would show up in the papers.

Loona Bimberton: She was neighbor of Mrs Packletide. She had much like characters of her neighbor. He had solid confidence in hotshot. The late thing done by her which brought on a great deal of disturbance to Mrs. Packletide. She declined the welcome to the lunch meeting Mrs. Packletide had tossed in her “honor” and declined to take a gander at the single daily paper for quite a long time for the dread of perusing about her neighbor’s accomplishments.

Lecture 1: Mrs. Packletide's Tiger

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Coachman Ali is very old and sick and has been regularly visiting the post office for the last five years. Unfavourable weather and failing health don’t deter him. He religiously visits the post office every day in the hope of receiving a letter from his daughter Miriam, his only child, who had got married to a soldier and left him. Getting a letter from Miriam becomes the most important mission for him and every day Ali is the first one to arrive and the last one to leave, but no letter ever comes for him. Everyday he goes back dejected and empty-handed. Everyone at the post office considers him mad and derives pleasure in tormenting him. Coachman Ali had been a famous shikari and a crackshot in his yester-years. When Miriam left him and did not respond, he realised the pain of suffering and separation. So he gave up hunting altogether. One day Ali is in very bad physical condition and reaches the post office with great effort. This makes him impatient and an argument takes place with the postmaster. The postmaster has his own preoccupations, he becomes irritated and calls Ali ‘a pest’. Ali is humiliated, crestfallen but not bereft of hope. While leaving, Ali gives five guineas to Laxmi Das, the clerk, and extracts a promise from him that he will deliver Miriam’s letter to his grave. Ali’s prediction proves true and he is not seen for some time. 

Lecture 1: The Letter

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The writer, Mr Hallock, was told by his employer Mr Jenkins to write a ghost story. He told Mr Hallock to write a very horrifying story with supernatural elements because the public liked these kind of stories. The writer agreed to this proposal for no one else printed his stuff. He was surprised how he could have written the earlier ghost stories for he was not a specialist in this genre. Whenever he had decided to write a ghost story, surprisingly the plot had appeared from nowhere. The writer sat down to pen the story, though no idea occurred to him. In fact his mind was wandering towards his wife’s shopping trips and other unghostly things. The writer loudly said, ‘‘This writing business is delightful, isn’t it?” and to his surprise a voice at the other end of the room said, “Yes it is.” The writer was surprised to see a figure taking shape gradually. It was a woman, tall and angular, with enormous fishy eyes, wearing spectacles. She came and stood before the writer. The writer wished to know why that woman had come. She gave a very surprising answer that the writer had only called her to help him in writing a story. 

Lecture 1: A Shady Plot

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This story depicts the dreams and aspirations of smalltimers and the apathy of film people for whom making films is a business. Patol Babu was a middle aged man of about fifty years with a bald head. His neighbour Nishikanta Ghosh informed him that his brother-in-law Naresh Dutt, a film producer, was looking around for an actor for a scene in a film, with looks like that of Patol Babu. Patol Babu was so excited to hear this news that in his excitement, he made the wrong purchases in the vegetable market. Patol Babu remembered fondly that he always had a great passion for the stage and in his youth he had acted in many ‘Jatras’. Indeed there was a time when people bought tickets especially to see him.

It was in the year 1934, when he lived in Kanchrapara and worked as a clerk with Hudson and Kimberley. He had thought of floating his own theatrical club but he lost his job. Ever since Patol Babu had to struggle a lot to make a living. He worked in a Bengali film, worked as an insurance salesman but nothing lasted. He paid regular visits to various offices for jobs but nothing worked. He still remembered some of the dialogues of the plays he had acted in.

Lecture 1: Patol Babu

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The narrator is a young boy, who is travelling by train. His attention is attracted by a big woman, sitting opposite, reading a newspaper. The headline and the coverstory was regarding a 14-year-old school boy named Sebastian Shultz, who awoke from a coma that the doctors feared would last forever. The story further elaborated that Sebastian had been injured in a motorway accident and did not regain consciousness. The mother of Sebastian hoped that their son would get out of coma, but only a miracle could save him. The narrator sees the boy’s photograph also and he is shocked to discover, it is the same Sebastian whom he had got to know. But the newspaper story stated that the boy had been in coma throughout. The narrator felt nervous and confused. He couldn’t figure out how could this have happened.It all started a month back, when the narrator along with his Dad had brought the latest psycho-drive games with a virtual reality, visor and glove. Some of these games didn’t appear new but the narrator was not bothered. He was thrilled with the latest technology and was getting impatient to start playing.

Lecture 1: Virtually True

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In a bog, which was called Bingle Bog, there lived a frog, who was crazy about his singing and incessantly sang from the evening to the morning light. All the creatures living in the bog found his songs to be most unpleasant and they tried to beat and insult him, but the frog was very insensitive and boastful. The frog kept singing with extreme passion because this was his way of expressing his heart-felt elation.One day the creatures of the bog were pleasantly surprised to hear a very melodious and soothing song sung by a nightingale. The frog was shocked and felt jealous. He wanted to be the undisputed singer of the bog. The nightingale’s song created a sensation and all the creatures praised it tremendously.

Lecture 1: The Frog and the Nightingale

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This poem is written in free verse and does not depend on any rhythm to convey the message. It is a poem describing a woman’s struggle against the falsity of lies and the truthful harshness of her own image from the perspective of an unsympathetic mirror. ‘I’ in the poem represents the mirror as Sylvia Plath is trying to see the mirror’s view of herself. The poem is written in the style of a monologue. Sylvia Plath was suffering from severe depression and she had very little compassion for herself.This poem shows how she is really scared of the truth the mirror is reflecting. Unlike other people, the mirror is free from any preoccupations or prejudices. Unlike human beings, it is free from any likes and dislikes and reflects only the truth. It is omniscient like the God, and sees everywhere. The mirror has God-like powers over the woman. The mirror constantly gazes at the wall opposite to it and the wall has pink spots of age, or discoloration on it. The view in the mirror is interrupted by the ‘to and fro’ movements of the woman. This refers to the passing of time and the young girl ageing into an old woman.

Lecture 1: Mirror

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Sonnet 55 builds up on Horace’s theme of poetry outlasting physical monuments to the dead. In Horace’s poetry, the poet is himself immortalised by his poetry but in this sonnet, Shakespeare seeks to build a figurative monument to his beloved, the fair lord. The fair lord is not described or revealed is any way in this sonnet. Instead, the sonnet just addresses the idea of immortality through verse. The ravages of time is a recurrent theme in the sonnets of Shakespeare. So sonnet 55 is one of the most famous works of Shakespeare and a notable deviation from other sonnets in which he appears insecure about his relationships and his self-worth. Here we find an impassioned burst of confidence as the poet claims to have the power to keep his friend’s memory alive evermore.

This sonnet, composed in 1817, is one of most famous of Shelley’s anthologised poems. This poem was composed in competition with Shelley’s friend Horace Smith, who wrote another sonnet on the same topic of Ozymandias. In terms of theme imagery, this poem is notable for its virtuous diction. The theme is the decline of all leaders, of all the empires they build, however mighty they may have been in their own time. Ozymandias was a another name for Ramesses the Great, Pharoah of the 19th century ancient Egypt. The sonnet parphrases the inscription beneath the statue, ‘‘If anyone wants to know how great I am and where I lie, let him surpass any of my works’’.

Lecture 1: Ozymandias

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A true test of people is how they behave towards the elderly. With modernisation, reverence of the elderly seems to have suffered a grievous blow. All happiness to the elderly is parsimoniously measured out. Too often the elderly suffer death by invisibility long before their physical demise. The daughters in ‘Dear Departed’ are very materialistic and like beasts of prey, they are only ready to pounce on the money and belongings of their father. Keeping father at home has become a tiresome burden. Looking towards the elderly has become a matter of comfort and financial aid rather than for inspiration and emotional strength. For a civilised society a new culture of giving needs to be ushered and one must give to the elderly without any selfish motive. We must remember that the difference between a helping hand and an outstretched palm is only a twist of the wrist.

Lecture 1: The Dear Departed

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A very influential and powerful section of the senators are jealous of the rising power and glory of Julius Caesar. Cassius, a master schemer, hatches a conspiracy to eliminate Caesar. He is backed by several others like Casca and Cimber. To give legitimacy to their dark designs, they finally rope in Brutus. Brutus is the most trusted and respected man in Rome. Brutus, the idealist joins the conspiracy feeling that Caesar’s murder is necessary for the freedom of Rome and republicanism. Ironically, Caesar is murdered at the foot of his rival Pompey’s statue. Antony, a trusted friend and confidant of Caesar, is a master manipulator and a matchless orator. He arouses the basic passions of the Roman mob. He is able to create sympathy for Caesar and directs the anger and hatred of the mob against the conspirators. 

Lecture 1: Julius Caesar

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Published    17-Jun-2017      Bilingual

English Course | CBSE Class 10 (Class X)

Amit Singh

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About Us

Hi , I am Amit Singh faculty of English. My sessions will not only covers the English for school but will surely enhance your Spoken and Written abilities.


STUDY KHAZANA is an e-treasure of knowledge and education with one aim of upbringing the level of education all over the India. In the journey of more than 25 years with 150 centers across the India we discovered that many student are out of the reach of proper education due to poverty.

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