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Movement is an important feature of all living organisms. These movements are extremely well coordinated and controlled which is managed by nervous system and hormonal system. Control an d Coordination in animals is done with the help of two main systems.
This chapter explain you the following topics and sub topics-
-Animals- nervous system
-What happens in reflex action?
-How are these tissues protected?
-How does the nervous tissues cause action
-Coordination in plants
-Immediate response to stimulus
-Movement due to growth
-Hormones in animals
Biology is the study of living things. All living things are called organisms, both plants and animals are living organisms. Movements, respiration, sensitivity, growth, reproduction are some steps of life process which provide the difference in living things and non living things and only living things such as plants, animals and human beings have such changes like reproduction, growth, movement etc.
The basic functions performed by living organisms for their survival and body maintenance are called life process.
This chapter explain the following topics-
-What are Life Processes?
-How do organisms obtain their Nutrition?
-Nutrition in Human beings
-Transportation in Human beings
-Transportation in plants
-Excretion in human beings
-Excretion in plants
Natural resources are the basic substances present in nature which are being utilised by the living organisms for their survival.
There are two types of resources-
a) exhaustible- present in limited quantity example- coal petroleum.
b)inexhaustible- present in unlimited quantity example- air,water.
Natural resources are the stock of nature such as air, water, soil, coal, minerals, animals and plants that are useful to mankind in many ways.
We have three R's to save our environment.
1. Reduce involves the less use of resources.
2. Recycle involves recycling of used items like plastic, paper etc convert them into new items.
3. Reuse involves using things again and again.
This chapter covers the following topics-
-Why do we need to manage our resources?
-forests and wildlife
-water for all
-coal and petroleum
-natural resources management
Genetics deals with the study of heredity and variation. The process of passing traits from parent to offspring is called heredity. Trait is any characteristic that is transferred from parent to offspring example- height and colour. All the life on earth has descended from a common ancestor. Evolution is the sequence of gradual changes over millions of years in which new species are produced. Variation is the minor differences which exists between individuals belonging to the same species.
Following topics are explain in this chapter- accumulation of variation during reproduction, heredity, inherited traits, Mendel's contributions, sex determination, evolution, illustration, fossils and human evolution and many more in detail.
Our surroundings is known as our environment. Everything that surrounds us is called environment. It includes both living things and non-living things that is biotic components and abiotic components. An ecosystem refers to all the living things and also the non-living things. It is a foundation of the biosphere and it determines the health of the entire earth system. We will explain more topics in this chapter- Ecosystem and its components, foodchains and webs, ozone layer and managing the garbage we produce and many more.
Reproduction is the biological process by which new individuals of the same kind are produced. Reproduction ensures a continuity of life of a species on earth. There are two main types of reproduction that is sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
There are so many topics that will be explain in this chapter in detail such as- fission, fragmentation, regeneration, budding, vegetative propagation, spore formation, sexual reproduction, reproduction in human beings, male reproductive system, female reproductive system and reproductive health, etc.